FKFS Veranstaltungen

2024 Stuttgart International Symposium
on Automotive and Engine Technology

2. - 3. Juli 2024

Poster des 2024 Symposiums

Am Dienstag, den 2. Juli von 16:00 bis 16:30 Uhr finden im List-Saal die beiden Postersessions Powertrain of the Future und Vehicle Technology mit den Sitzungsleitern Marco Chiodi und Andreas Wagner statt.

Am zweiten Tag des Symposiums, Mittwoch, den 3. Juli von 10:00 bis 10:30 Uhr werden die Poster zu den Themen Autonomous Driving und Development Methods unter der Leitung von Hans-Christian Reuss und Michael Grill vorgestellt.

Gina Abdelhalim
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |

Autonomous Driving is being utilized in various settings, including indoor areas such as industrial halls. Additionally, LIDAR sensors are currently popular due to their superior spatial resolution and accuracy compared to RADAR, as well as their robustness to varying lighting conditions compared to cameras. They enable precise and real-time perception of the surrounding environment. Several datasets for on-road scenarios such as KITTI or Waymo are publicly available. However, there is a notable lack of open-source datasets specifically designed for industrial hall scenarios, particularly for 3D LIDAR data. Furthermore, for industrial areas where vehicle platforms with omnidirectional drive are often used, 360° FOV LIDAR sensors are necessary to monitor all critical objects. Although high-resolution sensors would be optimal, mechanical LIDAR sensors with 360° FOV exhibit a significant price increase with increasing resolution. Most existing AI models for 3D object detection in point clouds are based on high-resolution LIDAR with many channels. This work aims to address these gaps by developing an automated AI-based labeling tool to generate 3D ground truth annotations for object detection from low-resolution LIDAR datasets captured in industrial hall scenarios. The point cloud data inside an industrial area at the KIT Campus Ost is recorded using a 16-channel LIDAR. The recorded objects include a forklift and box pallets for example. An upsampling LIDAR super-resolution approach is used that takes the recorded data as input for generating 64-channel point cloud data. The upsampled data is then utilized to fine-tune a 3D object detection model (Part-A2 net). Our testing results on a restricted dataset are highly promising, achieving a mean Average Precision of 95% at an IoU threshold of 0.75. The labeling tool is fully automated and utilizes the trained model for object detection. Manual corrections are also available. This research is part of the project FLOOW.

Muhammad Ammad
University of Applied Sciences Dresden
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |
Lidar sensors are a core element of fully automated vehicles. The reliable detection of surrounding objects depends very much on the algorithm used. The classic approach uses segmentation based on a distance criterion. This methodology is very robust, but also has disadvantages with low point cloud densities and for fusion with other sensors. Alternatives are grid-based algorithms or machine learning methods. Here too there is a dependency on the sensor measurement principle. Therefore, a comparative study was carried out on selected scenarios using all three methods for three different lidar sensors. To calculate the accuracy of the predictions, different metrics have been used such as OSPA Metric for tracks, IOU, Mean Average Precision, and Average Orientation Similarity for bounding boxes accuracy. This makes an objective comparison of the detection results possible. The robustness of the algorithms and the essential parameters is also discussed.
Adina Aniculaesei
TU Clausthal
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |
The conventional process of last-mile delivery logistics often leads to safety problems for road users and a high level of environmental pollution. Delivery drivers have to deal with frequent stops, search for a convenient parking spot and sometimes navigate through the narrow streets causing traffic congestion and possibly safety issues for the ego vehicle as well as for other traffic participants. This process is not only time consuming but also environmentally impactful, especially in low-emission zones where prolonged vehicle idling can lead to air pollution and to high operational costs. To overcome these challenges, an reliable autonomous delivery system is required that not only ensures the smooth, flexible and safe delivery of goods but also cutting the cost and meeting the delivery target. In the dynamic landscape of last-mile delivery, LogiSmile, an EU project co-funded by EIT Urban Mobility, introduced a solution to urban delivery challenges through an innovative cooperation between an Autonomous Hub Vehicle (AHV) and an Autonomous Delivery Device (ADD). This work addresses not only these challenges but also provides insight into a future where last-mile delivery is safer, more efficient and nature friendly. As a part of this project, the Institute for Software and Systems Engineering (ISSE) of TU Clausthal spearheads the development of an integrated software safety architecture for the AHV, featuring a dependability cage (DC) for the on-board monitoring of a single autonomous vehicle and a remote command control centre (CCC) for the off-board monitoring of the entire fleet of autonomous vehicles. Operating at SAE Level 3-4, the AHV incorporates a safety driver and a monitoring system, ensuring compliance with SAE guidelines. The DC enables safe transitions to degraded/ fail-safe driving modes in response to safety violations of the autonomous driving system, optimizing the vehicle`s operational safety. Additionally, the CCC enhances autonomy by redundantly monitoring the fleet of vehicles via real-time sensor streams, also facilitating the communication with the ADD and the reconfiguration of the driving mode depending on the current road scenario. The project results were successfully demonstrated in Hamburg in 2022, showcasing the practical implementation of the developed safety architecture and the insights gained.
Alexander Paul Blödel
Institute of Automotive Engineering Darmstadt
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |
The safety validation has proven to be one of the most obstructive challenges in the pursuit of highly automated driving. Exhaustive field tests have been deemed infeasible and novel approaches such as scenario-based testing yet require to be proven viable. The challenge becomes even more serious when considering changing architectures due to learning software components and over-the-air updates. A modular approach to safety approval, focusing on assuring the safe operation of individual modules in their respective environments, promises to reduce the initial effort. More importantly, it provides an argument for preserving the approval for future updates and upgrades, reducing the need for intensive retesting of the whole system. However, established knowledge-based methods for decomposition, specification, risk analysis and module test case generation struggle to argue completeness. Data-based methods used in other applications provide the opportunity to support this issue. Inspired by the design-by-contract paradigm, we combine selected methods into a framework to feed a data-driven interface definition to support modular safety approval. The framework is practically applied in a simulation environment to a highly automated vehicle with a disruptive modular architecture. A reduced ODD setting serves as a proof of concept and provides insights on the limitations and applicability of the applied methods with respect to the use cases of a modular safety approval.
Julian Borowski
IILS Ingenieurgesellschaft für Intelligente Lösungen und Systeme mbH
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |
Systems engineering and the design of complex systems is usually characterized by islands of knowledge, data silos and the fragmentation of software and processes. One of the reasons for this is that the flow of information in the design of complex systems is distributed across many disciplines, companies and systems with subsystems. As a result, a robust, smooth and efficient exchange of data between different software tools is very often difficult, if not impossible. This paper shows how the desired digital consistency data, the digital continuity of processes and the digital interoperability of all the engineering and manufacturing information along the product life cycle (PLC) can be guaranteed with the help of so-called graph-based design languages and an associated design compiler. For this purpose, abstract ontologies are used in graph-based design languages, which serve as a thesaurus and can be translated into executable simulation models by an associated design compiler. This enables the digital implementation of a machine-executable V-model of Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). The underlying theory, the machine-executable V-model and its digital implementation are demonstrated and explained in detail showing the fully automated design process of the Anti-Roll bar system and the electric energy storage based on the 2023 Formula Student race car of the Formula Student Team Weingarten (RWU).
Volker Buchmann
Konzelmann GmbH
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

Target: Currently, too much humidity enters batteries through semipermeable membranes of emergency degassing, leading to unwanted corrosion. What methods can prevent this? Methodology: This is also a challenge for emergency degassing paired with a pressure equalization function. What materials and designs are appropriate to achieve the reduction? Approaches are: 1.) splitting the function into pure pressure equalization and into emergency degassing element without membrane. 2) reduction of the air flow rate of the membrane 3) Splitting of the membranes of the emergency degassing elements into gas-tight and semi-permeable. Results: The presentation looks at the different approaches in terms of technical feasibility, financial aspects and time required for production and installation. In addition, evaluations of tests are presented. The result is open-ended, each developer/manufacturer of batteries for BEV or NAT applications must decide for himself which approach is best for the application. Additionally, the aspects of PFOA and PFAS on the membrane material are considered. Discussion: How useful are the current approaches in terms of cost. Shouldn`t these aspects be incorporated earlier in the development and design of battery cases?

Andreas Daberkow
Heilbronn university
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |

Slope differences and crosswind are decisive parameters for the energy consumption of vehicles. For electric vehicles in particular, both pieces of information are crucial for a precise determination of the remaining battery capacity and range. The team of authors from university and vehicle engineering contribute to the careful use of energy in the mobility of the future. Today, applications such as openweathermap.org/api or weatherapi.com or open-meteo.com/ provide the wind data for selectable geopositions. The presentation shows the conversion effort required to use this data and how the data can then be integrated into simulations and comparative measurements. The angle of slope also influences the energy consumption of the vehicle. Altitude data from GPS sensors or digital maps are often inaccurate and must be numerically post-processed for an exact calculation of the angle of inclination. For the first time, wind and altitude data recorded online are then integrated into driving simulations and evaluated to produce energy requirement forecasts for a target route. Documented journeys with a test vehicle and a comparison with longitudinal dynamics simulations round off the article. Janpoom, K. et al: Investigating the influential factors in real-world energy consumption of battery electric vehicles. Applied Energy 9 (2023) Daberkow, A. et al: An Energy Efficiency Comparison of Electric Vehicles for Rural–Urban Logistics. Springer, Small Electric Vehicles (2021)

Julian Fuchs
FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |

This article deals with the creation and concretization of a scenario catalogue in the context of scenario-based validation of highly automated driving functions. Due to the possible combinatorics of the various driving situations and influencing parameters in the open-world context, it is not possible to simply execute all possible combinations. Instead, new methods are needed that can make a representative statement about the respective scenario, but at the same time attempt to reduce the degree of execution. To this end, a methodology for risk assessment and criticality analysis is to be developed as part of this work. This approach uses analogies to existing methodologies (e.g. ASIL) and transfers them to the scenario-based context. To this end, existing public data sets containing top-view camera recordings of real traffic scenarios were analysed and evaluated with regard to previously defined, scenario-specific parameters. Based on this, the methodology for the evaluation, risk assessment and prioritization of the specific scenarios in the context under consideration will be designed. Finally, the results will be categorized in the existing development cycle of scenario-based testing, implemented and evaluated and validated with the real system for an exemplary scenario.

Hugo Gabele
University of Applied Sciences Esslingen
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hugo Gabele, LiMo 2040 Die Idee für ein modulares Fahrzeugkonzept, das (so gut wie) keinen Parkplatz mehr braucht und nachhaltig individuelle Mobilität mit urbanem Wohnen verbindet, wurde bereits auf dem Stuttgarter Symposium 2023 vorgestellt. Der Trick an der Sache ist die multifunktionale Kabine: Sie ist nicht nur Fahrzeug-Kabine, sondern auch Aufzugs-Kabine und vor allem Bestandteil einer modernen Wohnung. Neu ist die konkrete Umsetzung der Idee. Das Fahrzeugkonzept weist folgende Merkmale auf: Einfache und stabile Bauweise in U-Form (ähnlich DLR U-Shift). Kostengünstige konventionelle Lenk- und Antriebseinheit vorne (E-Motor mit Differenzial). Gefederte Einarmschwingen hinten. Platzsparendes Parken, U-Formen passen „gegenseitig“ zusammen. Das Carsharing-Prinzip reduziert zusätzlich den Parkplatzbedarf (auf 10 Kabinen kommen nur ca. 2 Fahrgestelle). Verzicht auf „Vollautonomes Fahren“ (dauert länger und wird teurer als von Experten prognostiziert) -> Teilautonomes System, d.h. Fahrgestell ausgerüstet mit GPS und Ultraschall-Sensoren (Autonomes Fahren nur vom ortsnahen Depot zum Gebäude). Teilautonomes bzw. manuelles Fahren zum Zielort mit Hilfe einer „Fernsteuerung“, die sich aus der Kabinenwand ausklappen lässt und die wichtigsten Fahrfunktionen incl. Joystick bzw. Lenkrad beinhaltet. Anfang 2024 wird der Prototyp in Betrieb genommen und ggf. erstmals auf dem Stuttgarter Symposium vorgestellt.

Ruben Gotthardt
Ruben Gotthardt Coaching und Prozessbegleitung
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |
In my presentation, I will show you how you can see team conflicts as a real opportunity for growth. Whether you are an entrepreneur or a manager, your focus is on successful collaboration and the development of team quality. After all, conflict is a natural part of any collaboration and can even serve as a catalyst for growth and improvement. But if the disputes are not resolved the consequences can be dramatic: The health of employees suffers, there is fluctuation and resignation of high performers in the team. This leads to dissatisfied customers, decreasing sales and many other damaging consequences. I will explain to you how to recognize and analyze conflicts at an early stage in order to understand the causes and work out solutions. You will learn how to develop a better understanding of each other together with your employees. Conflict serves as a key to change and growth, with transformative effects on a personal, team and corporate level. After my presentation, you will see conflict not as a hindrance, but rather as a gift. In 5 steps we will take a closer look at the following: 1) When we jump in the triangle: How conflicts arise and escalate 2) How high the cost of daily drama in the workplace really is 3) How you, as a leader, build an internal early warning system for conflict 4) Why resistance is almost always justified and what it is actually almost always about 5) What magic is in emotions: Why we can embrace conflict as the key to change and growth
Alexander Großberger
Dresden University of Technology
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |
The traditional approach for collision prediction in suspension systems uses nominal kinematics and part shapes. After simulating various combinations of wheel travels and steering rack strokes, general offsets are added to the part hulls. Afterwards the clearance between parts is rated based on experience. The main idea of the new approach is to split the problem into two tasks: the variation in motion due to kinematic effecting tolerances and the variation in outer contours. To handle the effort, the multibody simulation is substituted by neural networks to predict the trajectory based on hardpoint tolerances. The second task can be solved by the approach of summarized voxelization, which is used to describe parts in voxel representation including the probability, that the part is in that position. To predict the collision probability, the potentially involved voxels in a certain wheel position are relatively moved to the other part for an arbitrary number of variations calculated by the meta-model. Afterwards, the moved elements can be revoxelized in the relative grid. This leads to a voxel representation which includes variation in motion and in shape. A collision calculation can be done afterwards and yields the overall probability of part collisions. In the first place, the methodology offers the opportunity to take tolerance computationally into account and also provides statistical collision information. This revolutionizes the existing clearance evaluation methods.
Christian Heidorn
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU)
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |

AURIX TC2xx and TC3xx microcontrollers are used in numerous automotive applications, and recently, also in some which include machine learning tasks. Yet, these applications are mainly engineered manually, and only little tool support exists for bringing neural networks to TriCore microcontrollers. Thus, we propose OpTC, an end-to-end toolchain for automatic conversion, code generation, and deployment of neural networks on TC3xx microcontrollers. OpTC supports various types of neural networks and provides compression (e.g., pruning) and optimization (e.g., approximation of special activation functions) techniques often required to reduce execution time and memory footprints while maintaining accuracy. The toolchain incorporates cost models for estimating memory utilization and execution time of a neural network model. The flexibility in supporting different types of neural networks, such as multi-layer perceptrons (MLP), convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN), is shown in case studies for a TC387 microcontroller. Automotive applications for predicting the temperature in electric motors and detecting anomalies are thereby used to demonstrate the effectiveness and the wide range of applications supported by OpTC.

Tim Herold
Technical University of Darmstadt
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

Previous studies have shown that dosing AdBlue into the exhaust system of diesel engines to reduce nitrogen oxides can lead to an increase in the number of particles (PN). In addition to the influencing factors of exhaust gas temperature, exhaust gas mass flow and dosing quantity, the dosed medium itself (AdBlue) is not considered as a possible influence due to its regulation in ISO standard 22241. However, as the standard specifies limit value ranges for the individual regulated properties and components for newly sold AdBlue, in reality there is still some margin in the composition. This paper investigates the particle number increase due to AdBlue dosing using several CPCs. The increase in PN is determined by measuring the number of particles after DPF and thus directly before dosing as well as tailpipe. Several AdBlue products from different sources and countries are measured and their composition is also analyzed with regard to the limit values regulated in the standard. This shows that differences in the PN increase can be determined for the various products. In addition, two measurements are carried out with pure water as a main component of AdBlue in the form of single and double distilled water. Interestingly, the dosing of pure water also shows an increase in PN depending on the purity of the water. Furthermore, two AdBlue products are artificially aged in order to violate the standardized limit values, which is a feasible use case with regard to ISC tests, and subsequently measured. Since these impurities cannot be influenced but have a noticeable effect on the measured PN, it is important to quantify this and, if necessary, to take it into account in legislation.

Marijn Hollander
AVL List GmbH
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |
In the swiftly evolving landscape of technology, the convergence of software, DevOps, and hardware development presents a significant challenge. State-of-the-art practices involve extending a testbed with virtual components to create a digital twin of the vehicle. However, the challenge lies in establishing a consistent digital twin across a heterogeneous test environment. As we move from the testbed towards hardware-in-the-loop and software-in-the-loop, integrating an increasing number of virtual components becomes essential. Coupled with the complexity of numerous variants and high testing demands, this necessitates a toolchain that seamlessly integrates diverse testing methods, virtualization tools, and parameter management solutions across various testing environments while maintaining full traceability of all the artifacts. Our vision is to tackle this challenge by creating a unified ecosystem where cutting-edge testing approaches, virtualization models, and parameter management systems operate harmoniously, regardless of the test environment setup. This unified approach to the virtual testing workflow allows for seamless management without the need to switch between tools, streamlines the virtual testing process, reduces integration efforts and enhancing consistency across test environments. Experience firsthand the transformative impact of our approach on software, DevOps, and hardware testing, supported by real-world examples.
Dejie Ji
IAE, TU Braunschweig, Germany
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |
Investigating human driver behavior enhances the acceptance of the autonomous driving and increases road safety in heterogeneous environments with human-operated and autonomous vehicles. The previously established driver fingerprint model, focuses on the classification of driving style based on CAN bus signals. However, driving styles are inherently complex and influenced by multiple factors, including changing driving environments and driver states. To comprehensively create a driver profile, an in-car measurement system based on the Driver-Driven vehicle-Driving environment (3D) framework is developed. The measurement system records emotional and physiological signals from the driver, including ECG signal and heart rate. A Raspberry Pi camera is utilized on the dashboard to capture the driver`s facial expressions and a trained convolutional neural network (CNN) recognizes emotion. To conduct unobtrusive ECG measurements, an ECG sensor is integrated into the steering wheel. Additionally, the system accesses CAN bus signals from the vehicle to assess the driver’s driving style, extracting signals related to longitudinal and lateral control behavior from the Drive-CAN (A-CAN). Recognizing that variables from the driving environment can influence driving style, such as traffic signs and road conditions, a windshield-mounted webcam is integrated into the measurement system. This setup enables real-time detection of common traffic signs and assessment of road conditions, distinguishing between dry, wet, or icy road surfaces. Augmenting of the image data from camera, signals from in-car ADAS-sensors, such as the distance measured by the front radar in relation to neighboring vehicles, are integrated for a comprehensive analysis of driving style. The established measurement system is presently implemented in a test vehicle, poised to investigate the interplay between the 3D-parameters, with a focus on driving style of human driver.
Sören Keuchel
Novicos GmbH
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |
Acoustical properties of actuating systems in the automotive industry are gaining more and more attention. On the one hand the engineering innovation results in a decreasing noise inside the car and on the other hand the global trend towards electrified vehicles gives a sudden reduce in the surrounding noise in modern cars. These two reasons lead to a big need for automotive supplier to achieve excellent sound quality of their products and ensure that quality on serial production as well. In the contribution a new workflow is presented that utilizes the numerical simulation to realize an early development of an acoustical end of line (EOL) test station by an example of an automotive rear view camera system.
Michael Kühn
E@motion GmbH
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

By means of a system analysis of heavy electric trucks that are on the market or about to be introduced with a permissible total weight ≥ 12 tons, the drive structures known today are analyzed and structured. Hence the changes compared to today`s internal combustion engine layout are shown. The advantages and disadvantages with regard to the integration and function of the battery-electric powertrains are then elaborated. Based on an analysis and compilation of the main areas of application in distribution transport, a ranking of the electric truck system structures is carried out with the perspective of universal and commercially value-adding use in these applications. With the knowledge gained about the integration of the electric drive and high efficiency in operation, a concept for an ideal structure of an electric truck for these applications is described and its layout is compared with the internal combustion engine system structure

Josef Lapcik
Hanon Systems
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |

The thermal management of electric vehicles is becoming increasingly important for achieving future development goals. In particular, the automotive industry is focusing on increasing vehicle efficiency by utilizing existing heat quantities in conjunction with the use of heat pump systems. This has a direct impact on the design and layout of thermal systems and the respective components. This publication presents the development of a simulative development platform for the design of thermal system components. In particular, differences between current development approach and approach utilizing new simulation environment will be explained. The development steps required to create the necessary sub models and their coupling will then be discussed. In an initial investigation, modern electric vehicles operating points and their influence on cooling module and heat exchanger design are considered. Comparison of selected results from new simulation platform and from original development approach is processed and discussed for new areas of improvement for system and components. Performance and durability-related data are collected to describe modern electric vehicle configuration impact on thermal management system. The article concludes with an outlook on how the development platform can be further improved and used for the development of thermal system components in the future.

Xinlei Liu
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

This work explores the methanol compression ignition combustion assisted with glow plug in a light-duty diesel engine. An extensive computational study was conducted to optimize the position of the glow plug. The effects of spray umbrella angle, the relative angle between the glow plug and jet, and the injection strategy on the engine performance were evaluated. Of these parameters, the relative angle between the glow plug and jet was found to be the dominant factor affecting the ignition and flame propagation processes. At each position of the glow plug, the optimum relative angle differed due to the complex flow and air-fuel mixing within the combustion chamber. The removal of the swirling flow resulted in the earlier ignition and combustion phasing. However, the engine`s thermal efficiency was reduced due to the increased combustion loss. In addition, compared to the single injection strategy, the split injection strategy was more effective in promoting the ignition process. The narrower spray included angle yielded better fuel economy because less fuel was trapped within the squish region, leading to faster flame propagation and more advanced combustion phasing. However, even after optimizations, the engine still suffered from a high incomplete combustion loss. To mitigate this issue, the effect of dual glow plugs was examined. The engine performance was significantly improved due to the generated multi-ignition pockets.

Max Nestoriuc
AVL List GmbH
Autonomous Driving
02.07.2024 |

The verification, validation and homologation of automated driving systems is highly dependent on the HD-Map availability for the ODD creation. Currently this is the bottleneck limiting the possibility of virtual verification and validation on available HD maps which are predominantly non-urban. Mapping areas conventionally is both costly and time consuming.To address this challenge, AVES Reality and AVL have joined forces. AVES offers an automated HD- Maps generation process and creates 3D environments from aerial images anywhere on the globe. Additionally, its parameter-based semantic environment reconstruction allows customization and variation to match ODD requirements. This enables early-stage assessment and evaluation of new areas for AD-Systems also in urban areas, long before detailed HD-Maps are created. AVL leverages these HD-Maps and 3D environments by integrating them in an AVL simulation toolchain and provides the customers with the possibility to run hundreds of thousands of scenarios per day frenabling V&V and SOTIF testing activities for automated driving. In summary, AVES Reality and AVL accelerate this process and enable the scaling of V&V and homologation of automated driving systems. The poster will introduce in the challenges and requirements of scenario-based testing using simulation for automated driving, the scope of the collaboration between AVL and AVES Reality and the solution approach we provide to enable and improve AD simulation.

Oleksandr Osetrov
University Of Applied Sciences Cologne
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

Due to its physical and chemical properties, hydrogen is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines, providing grounds for studies on hydrogen engines. It is common practice to use a mathematical model for basic engine design and an essential part of this is the simulation of the combustion cycle, which is the subject of the work presented here. One of the most widely used models for describing combustion in gasoline and diesel engines is the Wiebe model. However, for cases of hydrogen combustion in DI engines, which are characterized by mixture stratification and in some cases significant incomplete combustion, practically no data can be found in the literature on the application of the Wiebe model. Based on Wiebe`s formulas, a mathematical model of hydrogen combustion has been developed. The model allows making computations for both DI and PFI hydrogen engines. The parameters of the Wiebe model were assessed for three different engines in a total of 26 operating modes. The modified base model considers the significant incompleteness of hydrogen combustion, which occurs at high air/fuel equivalence ratio. For PFI and DI hydrogen engines, equations and numerical values for the Wiebe model coefficients were determined to describe the dynamic and duration of combustion. Based on our simulation results we suggest using the sum of two Wiebe curves to describe combustion in zones with a lean mixture in DI engines. This allows a more accurate characterization of the combustion dynamics and pressure curves. In order to model a double hydrogen injection, we suggest using the sum of three Wiebe curves representing the combustion of the first injection in the flame front, the diffusion combustion of the second injection, and the relatively slow combustion in lean mixture zones. In the paper, we present a method for selecting the coefficients of each of the Wiebe curves.

Jan Paulitschek
McKinsey & Company, Inc.
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

The European Green Deal aims to reduce emissions by 55% compared to 1990 levels by 2030. The transportation sector has lagged behind in reducing emissions since 1990, and to address this, it must electrify powertrains, transform the mobility model, and decarbonize existing vehicle stock. Electrification of powertrains, including hybrids and battery electric vehicles, is the primary driver for decarbonizing passenger car transport, while hydrogen fuel cells will play a complementary role, particularly in commercial vehicle transport. To achieve this, battery manufacturing capacity must be increased by 33% annually to reach 5.8TWh by 2030 and transformed from linear to circular. Additionally, the charging infrastructure must be expanded 3-7x faster than EU`s weekly addition of 2000 new charging points today to meet the expected demand. Bio- and e-fuels are another approach to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of existing internal combustion engine vehicles. Alternatives to privately owned passenger vehicles, such as public transit and micromobility options, are insufficient to drive the necessary shift in demand away from private cars. Therefore, the implementation of pooled shared transport, or "ridesharing," on a large scale is the next crucial step in reducing the proportion of privately-owned vehicles in passenger mobility, with anticipated demand reaching hundreds of thousands of vehicles across the top 30 cities in the European Union by 2030.

Eugen Pfeifer
AUTOMOTEAM PFEIFER
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |

**Presentation only in German language** Open-pore aluminium chill casting is an established, sustainable series technology. The new class of materials with new mechanical, thermal, acoustic and other properties defines the next evolutionary stage in the development of new types of thermal components and systems with many new potentials that cannot be realised with other technologies. Hundreds of possible material variants, new phenomena of heat and mass transfer, novel mono-material hybrids and multi-material systems, modified material properties and previously unthinkable design possibilities form a completely new world for strategic product development. The world`s first feasibility study will be presented. It showing the substitution of a conventional heat sink for power electronics with a system that is up to 70% smaller and up to 70% lighter. There is also an outlook on new potential for heat exchangers, heat accumulators, thermally conductive plastic parts and other components. Customer feedbacks "The idea of having a heat sink the size of a bar of chocolate is really very tempting. We want to order samples“. / CEO, Manufacturer power electronics. „We have completed the tests. The results are promising“. / R&D Manufacturer power electronics. "We see an opportunity to strategically open up new markets with our products" / CTO, Heat exchanger manufacturer. www.porecool.com

Justus Raabe
IFS
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |

The increasing complexity and diversity of modern vehicles requires efficient development methods and processes to ensure the profitability of a vehicle manufacturer in the competitive environment. Therefore, this paper presents a generic approach and related methods for the consistent virtual development of combined longitudinal and lateral vehicle dynamics. This process is based on the established V-model from systems engineering and is exemplary applied for the development of a mid-size electric SUV. First step of the approach is the definition of vehicle dynamics targets based on objective evaluation criteria. Afterwards, these targets are translated into target ranges of the relevant systems and components parameters of the vehicle using an automated target cascading process. To support the calibration of vehicle dynamics control systems, a virtual calibration method involving sensitivity analysis and optimization techniques is proposed. The application of the methods for the development of a sample vehicle demonstrates their effectiveness and the potential for enhancing the efficiency of the vehicle development process.

Emanuel Ramneantu
TWT Science & Innovation
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |

As the technology in cars continues to evolve, the development is faced with increasingly complex software solutions. Tasks such as maintenance over the lifespan of the vehicle, reuse in other models as well as compliance with regulatory requirements, therefore, need to be efficiently accomplished to keep up with ever shortening development cycles. In the context of the research project SmartDelta (sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research on the basis of a decision by the German Bundestag via ITEA4), we are developing a tool for code-based similarity analysis. This enables us to obtain automated code reuse suggestions, which makes code changes such as fixing vulnerabilities over multiple product variants faster. Combined with test case prioritization, it will significantly decrease time needed for testing. By taking advantage of the collaboration possibilities within the project, our solution is created with large, production scale codebases in mind. Our approach is based on Code Property Graphs which provide a compact yet comprehensive model on the code. We employ classical algorithms in conjunction with machine learning to extract the desired information out of Code Property Graphs.

Lukas Saur
Institute of Fluid Mechanics Erlangen
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |

In electrified vehicles, auxiliary units can be a dominant source of noise, one of which is the re-frigerant scroll compressor. Compared to vehicles with combustion engines, e-vehicles require larger refrigerant compressors, as in addition to the interior, also the battery and the electric motors have to be cooled. Currently, scroll compressors are widely used in the automotive industry, which generate one pressure pulse per revolution due to their discontinuous compression principle. This results in speed-dependent pressure fluctuations as well as higher-harmonic pulsations that arise from reflections. These fluctuations spread through the refrigeration circuit and cause the vibration excitation of refrigerant lines and heat exchangers. The sound transmission path in the air con-ditioning heat exchanger integrated in the dashboard is particularly critical. Various silencer con-figurations can be used to dampen these pulsations. This paper compares the acoustic damping performance and pressure loss of two mufflers and a resonator for different operating points. Measurements of the pressure pulsations before and after the flow silencer are carried out using a refrigeration circuit acoustic test rig. The experimentally determined values are compared with analytically calculated sound attenuation curves of the silencers. In addition, the pressure loss generated by the flow silencer is measured, as pressure losses in the refrigeration circuit have a negative effect on thermal efficiency. The damping range of the resonator starts at a lower frequency compared to the mufflers. This allows the reduction of high-amplitude 1st order pressure pulsations. Furthermore the resonator generates a lower pressure loss than the mufflers. The findings on the operation principle and damping performance of different refrigerant circuit silencers enable the reduction of flow-induced noise in thermomanagement system components in vehicles.

Joachim Schlosser
Elektrobit Automotive GmbH
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |

Due to manifold benefits compared to proprietary software solutions, free and open source software (FOSS) in general, and Linux especially becomes more and more relevant for embedded solutions in the automotive domain, especially in High Performance Computing Platforms (HPC). However, taking over liability and warranty for a FOSS software-based problem raises the problem of software quality assurance, and thus respectively risk control. In order to control and minimize the residual risk of a product or service, the traditional and well-accepted measure in the automotive domain is to assess the engineering processes and resulting work products via a process assessment model given by the ASPICE maturity model, as well as requirements from functional safety standards for safety related functions. The underlying process reference model of ASPICE assumes software development performed and controlled by an organization. However, this assumption is not given by and even contrary to the nature of FOSS development, where high quality is achieved based on feedback and contributions of an open community. While typical software quality assurance measures are widespread in community-based software development, a single entity cannot control these. This, along with the huge code base in Linux makes applying the low-level software related processes ASPICE Process Reference Model (PRM) both meaningless and economically infeasible. In this paper, we propose a tailoring of the process model accompanied with compensation measures, which accounts for the FOSS software specifics. This allows to achieve the quality assurance and risk mitigation goals of ASPICE, and consequently an assessment via the ASPICE Process Assessment Model (PAM) as well as functional safety standards. We further provide details on our solutions and strategies to fulfill the key elements of the process model. The solution presented here is one key factor for our EB corbos Linux – built on Ubuntu to provide a production grade Linux distribution suited to the automotive embedded needs, including liability, warranty, and long-term maintenance.

Karl Schreiner
TWT GmbH Science & Innovation
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |
Tronis® is an Unreal-Engine based software for the virtual prototyping of driver assistance systems for highly automated and autonomous driving, with which traffic scenarios can be efficiently modeled and simulated for testing. Given the high level of detail present in real-world urban road networks, a completely manual 3D modeling process for this purpose is often not feasible. Instead, a more abstract domain-specific description is preferable, as it is specified in the ASAM OpenDRIVE and OpenSCENARIO standards. However, as OpenDRIVE does not directly describe the road geometry as meshes, it always requires a suitable automatic mesh generation mechanism for rendering the traffic scene in a 3D engine. Algorithmic generation of road meshes comes with significant challenges given the diversity of environments due to the complexity and context-specific nature of real-world scenarios. Simplistic approaches might not fully capture irregularities or be able to prevent undesirable artifacts, and thereby may yield results that fail to correctly represent the true geometry of the road network. In this paper, partially funded by AI-NET-ANTILLAS, we describe our adaption of the widely known Marching Squares algorithm for the generation of road junctions from OpenDRIVE descriptions, which often lead to challenging geometric problems during their generation. We compare the result to other state-of-the-art implementations and discuss possible future improvements.
Gabriel Kai Simmann
Hochschule Karlsruhe
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |

This paper proposes a novel approach to the design of a Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) specifically tailored to embedded systems, placing a significant emphasis on time-controlled hardware access. The general concept and utilization of a HAL in industrial projects are widespread, serving as a well-established method in embedded systems development. HALs enhance application software portability, simplify underlying hardware usage by abstracting its inherent complexity and reduce overall development costs through software reusability. Beyond these established advantages, this paper introduces a conceptual framework that addresses critical challenges related to debugging and mitigates input-related problems often encountered in embedded systems. This becomes particularly pertinent in the automotive context, where the intricate operational environment of embedded systems demands robust solutions. The HAL design presented in this paper mitigates these issues. The design is structured as a modular software concept, leveraging the strategic use of configuration tables to provide an abstracted, rapid and well-organized method for configuring hardware. Furthermore, those configuration tables are used to realize an application-specific time-controlled synchronization mechanism between the actual hardware data registers and an internal software representation of those. The application software exclusively interacts with this representation, preventing errors arising from unstable inputs and ensuring strict timing. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, with a focus on its modular structure for an efficient and memory-saving implementation. Moreover, the document explores and discusses potential extensions and adaptations to the proposed design, enhancing its flexibility for individual use cases. In conclusion, this comprehensive exploration seeks to contribute to the advancement of embedded systems development by offering a refined and adaptable HAL design.

Théo Tamisier
Q_PERIOR
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |

2023 witnessed a surge in cybersecurity incidents within the automotive sector: major US automotive supplier victim to ransomware, Porsche Macan sales halting due to cybersecurity non-compliance, recurring hacker intrusions into infotainment systems at Tesla, Hyundai, Ford, and others. The trend continues into 2024, with a new focal point: the applicability of UN R155 and R156 to all vehicles, encompassing not only new models but also newly manufactured former models. Cybersecurity is evolving beyond a safety or operational concern for OEMs; it is now a compliance risk that demands attention. One essential pillar of regulation consists of managing risks adequately, timely and efficiently. Adequately, because the risks must be identified and assessed, including the complexity due to functions and components interactions. Timely, the risks must be continuously re-evaluated before and after production, to follow software changes and to adapt to the threat landscape. Efficiently, because risks mitigated via security controls must be tracked down along the development process, to ensure good implementation and alignment between theoretical artefacts and real residual in-vehicle risks. Unfortunately, many OEMs are not ready to deal with it. Poor methodologies associated with outdated tooling jeopardize the whole security chain. In this paper, we will discuss pitfalls, upcoming challenges for stakeholders in 2024 and how to build viable solutions for efficient vehicle security.

Alwin Tuschkan
AVL List GmbH
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

The inclusion of simulation-based or simulation-supported validation can advance the validation process in terms of reducing testing time and the required number of samples. In this presentation and paper a generic advanced model based Design Validation Plan (DVP) for e-axles is introduced. It is shown how simulation can be used to substitute physical testing for design validation and save about 50% of time and cost efforts compared to a generic common European standard validation process. One common testing area with a high potential for virtual validation is the assessment of efficiency. Latest results of an AVL research project regarding an e-motor efficiency mapping are shown and discussed. Focus is the correlation between simulation and measurement and in particular the investigation and comparison of validation confidence including uncertainties of both, virtual and physical validation. These investigations underline the trustworthiness of simulation – which is key to implementing advanced model based virtual validation to the industry.

Patrick Vaudrevange
TWT GmbH Science & Innovation
Development Methods
02.07.2024 |

The future success of the automotive OEM will closely be related to the adaption of artificial intelligence (AI) in all its domains, e.g., in the engineering process, in production, and in the software-defined vehicle itself. In more detail, fast AI surrogate models can speed up time-consuming simulations in the engineering process by a huge factor – independent of the simulation domain, being it fluid, structural, thermal, or electrical. Hence, AI surrogate models can be used to identify the optimal configuration, something that is often practically impossible using traditional simulations. Moreover, the automotive OEM owns huge datasets, originating for example from the development and testing, from production or from the fleet. To gain knowledge from these datasets can be of upmost importance. One key is the data-driven detection of unexpected data using AI, for example, for predictive maintenance or for AI-driven data correction. In addition, one can use data to predict its future evolution to predict, e.g., driving profiles or the power consumption of the vehicle electrical system. In this talk, we introduce the AI framework OPTIMALIS® , demonstrate its broad range of application and highlight its intuitive usage. The key advantages of OPTIMALIS® are its standardized data-interface, its ability to automatically adopt to data, and its autonomy. As such, OPTIMALIS® is the ideal tool to test the usage of AI in your use-case and to leverage your business to the next level.

Yifan Wang
IAE, TU Braunschweig, Germany
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |
Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems are critical in preventing collisions, yet their effectiveness hinges on accurately estimating the distance between the vehicle and other road users, as well as understanding road conditions. Errors in distance estimation can result in premature or delayed braking and varying road conditions alter road-tire friction coefficients, affecting braking distances. Advancements in sensor technology and deep learning have improved vehicle perception and real-world understanding. The integration of advanced sensors like LiDARs has significantly enhanced distance estimation. Cameras and deep neural networks are also employed to estimate the road conditions. However, AEB systems face notable challenges in urban environments, influenced by complex scenarios and adverse weather conditions such as rain and fog. Therefore, investigating the error tolerance of these estimations is essential for the performance of AEB systems. Determining the actual distances between other road users and the ego vehicle poses a significant challenge. Likewise, precisely capturing and adjusting real-world values of road-tire friction coefficients is highly challenging. To address these issues, we develop a digital twin of our test vehicle in the IPG CarMaker simulation environment, which includes realistic driving dynamics and sensor models. This approach facilitates accurate measurement and adjustment of distance and road-tire friction coefficients. Our simulated test vehicle is equipped with a distance estimation algorithm and AEB system designed for eventual deployment in its real-world counterpart. The testing protocol begins with the European New Car Assessment Programme (EU NCAP) AEB Car-to-Pedestrian standard. Additionally, our simulation encompasses realistic urban scenarios, featuring complex traffic conditions and diverse weather scenarios, including rain, fog, and varying road surfaces like dry, wet, snow-covered, and icy. The study concludes with an analysis of the identified error tolerances, an in-depth discussion on the challenges encountered during the simulation process, and reflections on the implications for future research and practical applications.
Niko Waxmann
P3 group GmbH
Powertrain of the Future
02.07.2024 |

With the introduction of bi-directional charging for electric vehicles (EVs), new technical, but especially economic potentials arise. The term “Smart Charging” defines different ways and options of controlled EV charging to avoid peak loads on the local distribution grid, optimize costs, optimize carbon footprint of EV charging or generate additional revenues by trading the bundled EV battery capacity on the electricity market. P3 will provide an overview of technical and economical potential as well as the underlying business models for the German market. 1 Technical potential for smart charging in Germany The ramp-up of bidirectional vehicles by 2035 is based on the inhouse developed market model by P3. Based on the overall market ramp-up of BEV in Germany, the share of BEV with bidirectional charging capability was derived per OEM based on their announcements. The OEM ramp-up starts with the first announced bidirectional BEV or the first enabled platform and only models that are technically enabled for vehicle-to-home (V2H) or vehicle-to-grid (V2G) are taken into account. Figure 1 shows the ramp-up of BEV enabled for V2H/V2G in the German market. In 2022 already ~20,000 vehicles have been available within Germany (mainly Volkswagen). For 2023, more OEM have announced the introduction of BEV enabled for bidirectional charging. P3 expects that by 2035 at the latest, all manufacturers` new registrations will be enabled for V2H/V2G, resulting in a car park of more than 20 million enabled vehicles. 2 Economic potential for smart charging in Germany The acceptance of the technology by the end customers is relevant to exploit the overall potential of smart charging. Since most vehicles are privately owned, the owners must be willing to feed the electricity back into the grid. Depending on the benefits of bidirectional charging, this willingness can be stronger or weaker. Incentives must also be created for commercial fleet owners to accept the technology.

Fabian Weitz
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Vehicle Technology
02.07.2024 |
Increasing urbanisation and the growing environmental awareness in society require new and innovative vehicle concepts. In the present work, the design freedoms of additive manufacturing (AM) are used to develop a front axle wheel suspension for a novel modular vehicle concept. The development of the suspension components is based on a new method using industry standard load cases for the strength design of the components. To design the chassis components, first the available installation space is determined and a suitable configuration of the chassis components is defined. Furthermore, numerical methods are used to identify component geometries that are suitable for the force flow. The optimisation setup is selected in a way that allows to integrate information, energy and material-carrying conductors into the suspension arms. The conductors even serve as load-bearing structures because of the matching design of the components. High-strength light metals are used to minimise the component masses. Apertures are provided through the components for the routing of electrical conductors. The transport of fluids is realised by lines integrated into the wishbones. The final geometries of the suspension components are then validated by a finite element analysis (FEA) of the overall suspension model. The result of the applied method is lightweight suspension components with a high degree of functional integration. This improves the vehicle package and achieves higher front wheel clearance, increasing the possible steering angles and thus improving manoeuvrability. The saving of unsprung mass can improve handling and has a positive effect on the vehicle`s energy consumption. Furthermore, the sectional line integration is followed by a simplified assembly of the front axle suspension.