FKFS Veranstaltungen

2025 Stuttgart International Symposium
on Automotive and Engine Technology

3. - 4. Juli 2025

Session: Electric Powertrains II | | 08:30 - 09:00

Technical and Economical Potential of Smart Charging in Germany

Henrik Neumann, P3 automotive GmbH

With the introduction of bi-directional charging for electric vehicles (EVs), new technical, but especially economic potentials arise. The term “Smart Charging” defines different ways and options of controlled EV charging to avoid peak loads on the local distribution grid, optimize costs, optimize carbon footprint of EV charging or generate additional revenues by trading the bundled EV battery capacity on the electricity market. P3 will provide an overview of technical and economical potential as well as the underlying business models for the German market. 1 Technical potential for smart charging in Germany The ramp-up of bidirectional vehicles by 2035 is based on the inhouse developed market model by P3. Based on the overall market ramp-up of BEV in Germany, the share of BEV with bidirectional charging capability was derived per OEM based on their announcements. The OEM ramp-up starts with the first announced bidirectional BEV or the first enabled platform and only models that are technically enabled for vehicle-to-home (V2H) or vehicle-to-grid (V2G) are taken into account. Figure 1 shows the ramp-up of BEV enabled for V2H/V2G in the German market. In 2022 already ~20,000 vehicles have been available within Germany (mainly Volkswagen). For 2023, more OEM have announced the introduction of BEV enabled for bidirectional charging. P3 expects that by 2035 at the latest, all manufacturers` new registrations will be enabled for V2H/V2G, resulting in a car park of more than 20 million enabled vehicles. 2 Economic potential for smart charging in Germany The acceptance of the technology by the end customers is relevant to exploit the overall potential of smart charging. Since most vehicles are privately owned, the owners must be willing to feed the electricity back into the grid. Depending on the benefits of bidirectional charging, this willingness can be stronger or weaker. Incentives must also be created for commercial fleet owners to accept the technology.